Before delving into advanced techniques for truffle cultivation, there are some fundamental considerations that apply to the black winter truffle (Tuber melanosporum). (The summer truffle (Tuber aestivum/uncinatum) requires somewhat different considerations.)

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Microscopic view of truffle fungus on roots

Climate and Average Temperatures

Average monthly temperature figures can have a significant impact on black winter truffle cultivation. As a general guide, seasons need to be clearly defined, but not characterized by extremes.


Rainfall can have a significant impact on truffle yields. In Europe, seasonal rainfall is usually the biggest factor influencing the annual truffle yield, and the same applies to North America.

Soil Conditions

The ideal soil for truffle cultivation is free-draining with a pH of between 7.6 – 7.9. At the high pH levels, the availability of certain key nutrients needed for truffle cultivation can be limited, therefore a comprehensive soil test need to be performed to identify possible nutrient deficiencies.

Other factors

Aside from climatic and soil conditions, there are a number of other factors that need to be addressed when choosing a truffle orchard site: